Our Team

With many years of comprehensive knowledge and experience in multi-disciplined fields

Dr Susie Hardie

  • Position: Co-ordinator
  • Expertise: Stable and radioisotope chemistry, Environmental chemistry, Contaminated land remediation, Communication, Radioactive waste management, Carbon cycling, Greenhouse gases
  • Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.


 Dr Susie Hardie has 2 decades of experience in environmental research and radioactive waste management.


Linkedin  ResearchGate  Schwarz Hara Consult 


Dr Susie Hardie has 20 years` experience in radioactive waste management and environmental research. Since 2011, she has been particularly involved in projects related to the accident at Fukushima Daiichi (1F), spending months in Japan as a visiting Research Fellow with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) team in Fukushima city, assisting documentation of off-site remediation and assessment of radiocaesium mobility. In addition, she has supported studies of 1F on-site stabilisation and planning of decommissioning, with special emphasis on management of fuel debris / hot particles and a holistic approach to waste disposal. Dr Hardie acts as coordinator for a wide range of other work carried out in Japan, including review / English documentation of a safety case for co-disposal of HLW and TRU by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan and a spent fuel feasibility study by JAEA. A focus of work has been development of optimised disposal concepts that place emphasis on operational safety, practicality and reduction of costs / environmental impact. For such work, a range of advanced knowledge management tools are used to comprehensively capture potential natural and human perturbations and identify trade-offs between operational and post-closure safety. Dr Hardie was also involved in a feasibility study for a waste disposal facility for damaged nuclear facilities in Iraq.

Susie has a PhD in stable and radioisotope chemistry. As a post-doctoral researcher in Scotland for 5 years, her research focussed on the use of stable and radioisotopes (d2H, d13C, d15N, d18O,14C, 137Cs, 210Pb, 241Am, 239/240Pu, 238U-234U-230Th) to study environmental and geological processes. Environmental research projects included: remediation of heavy metal contaminated land, carbon cycling in peatlands (including novel technology development to enable radiocarbon dating of methane and carbon dioxide) and the authentication of Scotch whisky. Geological research projects have included investigations into the mobility and behaviour of radionuclides within natural bentonite clay and pillow lavas for the Cyprus Natural Analogue Project.



McKinley, I.G., West, J.M. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2022). A Risk Management Perspective on Climate Change: Lessons Learned from the Nuclear Industry. Environmental Management, https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-022-01594-y.

McKinley, I.G., West, J.M. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2021). Risk management for pandemics: a novel approach. Sustainability Sciencehttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10533-020-00638-x.

Takeuchi, M.R.H., Hasegawa, T., Hardie, S.M.L., McKinley, L.E., Marquez, G.P.B. & Ishihara, K.N. (2021). Scientific justifications for the political decision-making on environmental remediation carried out after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Heliyon, 7, 3, March 2021.

Klein, E., Hardie, S.M.L., Kickmaier, W. & McKinley, I.G. (2021). Testing repository safety assessment models for deep geological disposal using legacy contaminated sites. Science of the Total Environment, 776, 145949.

Garnett, M.H., Hardie, S.M.L. & Murray, C. (2020). Radiocarbon analysis reveals that vegetation facilitates the release of old methane in a temperate raised bog. Biogeochemistry, doi.org/10.1007/s10533-020-00638-x 

Takeuchi, M.R.H., Hasegawa, T., Hardie S.M.L., McKinley, L.E. & Ishihara, K.N. (2020). Leadership for management of high-level radioactive waste in Japan, Environmental Geotechnics7(2): 137–146.

McKinley, I.G., Masuda, S., Hardie, S.M.L., Umeki, H., Naito, M. & Takase, H. (2018). Public acceptance as a driver for repository design. Journal of Energy, Volume 2018, Article ID 7546158, 8 pages, doi.org/10.1155/2018/7546158y.

Hardie, S.M.L., McKinley, I.G., Lomperski, S., Kawamura, H. & Beattie, T. (2016). Management options for Fukushima corium. Progress in Nuclear Energy, 92, 260-266.

Umeki, H., McKinley, I.G., Honda, A., Wakasugi, K., Takase, H. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2015). Repository Resilience. Nuclear Engineering International, July 2015, 24-26.

McKinley, I.G., Kawamura, H., Hardie, S.M.L., Klein, E. & Beattie, T.M. (2015). Key natural analogue input required to build a safety case for direct disposal of spent fuel in Japan. Swiss Journal of Geosciences, 108, 147-154.

Miyahara, K., McKinley, I.G., Saito, K., Iijima, K. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2015). Fukushima cleanup: status and lessons learned, Nuclear Engineering International, November 2015, 12-14.

McKinley, I.G., Hardie, S.M.L. & Klein, E. (2014). Fukushima Dai-ichi challenges from a radiochemistry perspective. INSJ International Nuclear Safety Journal, 3, 68-74.

Hardie, S.M.L. & McKinley, I.G. (2014). Fukushima remediation: status and overview of future plans. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 133, 75-85.

Alexander, W.R., Milodowski A.E., Pitty A.F., Hardie S.M.L., Kemp S.J., Rushton, J.C., Siathas, A., Siathas, A., MacKenzie, A.B., Korkeakoski, P., Norris, S., Sellin P. &  Rigas, M. (2013). Bentonite reactivity in alkaline solutions: interim results of the Cyprus Natural Analogue Project (CNAP). Clay Minerals, 48, 235-249.

Garnett, M.H., Hardie S.M.L., Murray C. & Billett M.F. (2013). Radiocarbon dating of methane and carbon dioxide evaded from a temperate peatland stream. Biogeochemistry, 114, 213-223.

Alexander, W.R., Milodowski, A.E., Pitty, A.F., Hardie, S.M.L., Kemp, S.J., Korkeakoski, P., Rigas, M., Rushton, J.C., Sellin, P. & Tweed, C.J. (2012). Reaction of bentonite in low-alkali cement leachates: an overview of the Cyprus Natural Analogue Project (CNAP). Mineralogical Magazine, 76, 3019-3022.

Garnett, M.H., Hardie, S.M.L., & Murray, C. (2012). Radiocarbon analysis of methane emitted from the surface of a raised peat bog. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 50, 158-163.

Meier-Augenstein, W., Kemp, H.F. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2012). Detection of counterfeit Scotch whisky by d2H and d18O stable isotope analysis. Food Chemistry, 133, 1070-1074.

Hardie, S.M.L., Garnett, M.H., Fallick, A.E., Ostle, N.J., Rowland, A.P. & Flowers, T.H. (2011). Abiotic drivers and their interactive effect on the flux and carbon isotope (14C and d13C) composition of soil-respired CO2. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 43, 2432-2440.

Garnett, M.H., Hardie, S.M.L. & Murray, C. (2011). Radiocarbon and stable carbon analysis of dissolved CH4 and CO2 from the profile of a raised peat bog. Radiocarbon, 53, 71-83.

MacKenzie, A.B., Hardie, S.M.L., Farmer, J.G., Eades, L.J. & Pulford, I.D. (2011). Analytical and sampling constraints in 210Pb dating. Science of the Total Environment, 409, 1298-1304.

Hardie, S.M.L., Garnett, M.H., Fallick, A.E., Stott, A.W., Rowland, A.P. & Ostle, N.J. (2010). Testing the use of septum capped vials for 13C-isotope abundance analysis of carbon dioxide. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, 24, 1805-1809

Garnett, M.H. & Hardie, S.M.L. Isotope (14C and d13C) analysis of deep peat CO2 using a passive sampling technique. (2009). Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41, 2477-2483.

Hardie, S.M.L., Garnett, M.H., Fallick, A.E., Ostle, N.J. & Rowland, A.P. (2009). Bomb-14C analysis of ecosystem respiration reveals that peatland vegetation facilitates release of old carbon. Geoderma, 153, 393-401.

Hardie, S.M.L., Garnett, M.H., Fallick, A.E., Rowland, A.P. & Ostle, N.J. (2007). Spatial variability of bomb-14C in an upland peat bog. Radiocarbon, 49, 1055-1063.

Billett, M.F., Garnett, M.H. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2006). A direct method to measure 14CO2 lost by evasion from surface waters. Radiocarbon, 48, 61-68.

Hardie, S.M.L., Garnett, M.H., Fallick, A.E., Rowland, A.P. & Ostle, N.J. (2005). Carbon dioxide capture using a zeolite molecular sieve sampling system for isotopic (13C and 14C) studies of respiration. Radiocarbon, 47, 441-451.


McKinley, I.G. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2022). A global perspective on radioactive waste disposal. Nuclear Engineering International, 18 August 2022.

Schwarz, R., Willmann, M., Reinhardt, S., Hardie, S.M.L., Voß, M. & Pechstein. A. (2022). TBO Bözberg-2-1: Data Report, Dossier VII,  Hydraulic Packer Testing, Nagra NAB 21-22.

McKinley, I.G. Nakayama, S. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2021). Fukushima Ten Years On: Lessons Learned. Nuclear Engineering International, 21 April 2021.

Schwarz, R., Hardie, S.M.L., Müller, H.R., Köhler, S. & Pechstein. A. (2021). TBO Marthalen-1-1: Data Report, Dossier VII,  Hydraulic Packer Testing, Nagra NAB 21-20.

Poller, A., Hardie, S.M.L., Mayer, G., Pijorr, M., Poppei, J., Smith, P., Urpi, L. & Wissmeier, L. (2021). Identification and evaluation of processes for joint disposal of high level radioactive waste and low to intermediate level radioactive waste. Safety of Nuclear Waste Disposal, 1, 183–184, 2021. https://doi.org/10.5194/sand-1-183-2021.

McKinley, I.G. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2020). Waste Management in a Warming World. Nuclear Engineering International, Q2, 25-28. https://secure.viewer.zmags.com/publication/1e19e22d#/1e19e22d/1

Apted, M., Zhou, W. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2018). Overview of Trans-Pacific Repository Programs. American Nuclear Society, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, June 17th - 21st.

McKinley, I.G. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2017). Microbial issues for disposal of Japanese TRU waste, International Society for Subsurface Microbiology, Rotorua, New Zealand, November 6th - 10th.

McKinley, I.G. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2017). Assuring the human resources for severe accident management and environmental remediation, APSORC 2017, Jeju island, South Korea, September 17th - 22nd.

McKinley, I.G., Hardie, S.M.L. & Hamamoto, T. (2017). Environmental radiochemistry: applicability and limitations of chemical thermodynamic models, APSORC 2017, Jeju island, South Korea, September 17th - 22nd.

Hardie, S.M.L., McKinley, I.G. & Sasaki, T. (2017). 1F and the hot particle problem, APSORC 2017, Jeju island, South Korea, September 17th - 22nd.

Hardie, S.M.L., Paris, B. & Apted, M. (2017). Hanford Site Composite Analysis Technical Approach Description: Waste Form Release. Report prepared for Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management, June 2017.

Hardie, S.M.L., McKinley, I.G. & Scourse, E.M. (2015). Remediation of sites contaminated from nuclear energy generation activities. 1st Chemistry in Energy Conference, July 20th - July 22nd, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Beattie, T.M., McKinley, I.G. & Hardie, S.M.L. (2015). Chemical challenges for safety cases supporting geological disposal of radioactive waste. 1st Chemistry in Energy Conference, July 20th - July 22nd, Edinburgh, Scotland.

McKinley, I.G., Hardie, S.M.L., McKie, D. & Clark, A. (2015). Use of advanced tools to manage the chemical complexity of carbon capture projects.1st Chemistry in Energy Conference, July 20th - July 22nd, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Klein, E., McKinley, I.G., Hardie, S.M.L., Tachi, Y., Shibata, M., Amano, Y. & Takase, H. (2015). Use of natural analogues to develop and test models of radionuclide release and transport in uplift / erosion scenarios. 14th Natural Analogue Working Group Workshop, 9th - 11th June, 2015, Olkiluoto, Finland.

Amano K., Semba T., Makino H., Hama K., Mizuno T., Seo T., Kickmaier W., Hardie S.M.L., McKinley I.G., McKie D., Neall F.M., McKinley L., Takase H. & Alexander W.R. (2015). CoolRepH26: Integrated R&D report for supporting safety case development. ANS 2015 IHLRWM International High Level Radioactive Waste Management. 12th - 16th April, 2015, Charleston, USA.

Miyahara, K., McKinley, I.G., Saito, K., Hardie S.M.L. & Iijima, K. (2015). Technical Report: Use of Knowledge and Experience Gained from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident to Establish the Technical Basis for Strategic Off-site Response.

Nakayama, S., Kawase, K., Hardie S.M.L., Yashio, S., Ijiima, K., McKinley, I.G., Miyahara, K. & Klein, E. (2015). Remediation of Contaminated Areas in the Aftermath of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: Overview, Analysis and Lessons Learned Part 1: A Report on the “Decontamination Pilot Project”.

Nakayama, S., Kawase, K., Hardie S.M.L., Yashio, S., Ijiima, K., McKinley, I.G., Miyahara, K. & Klein, E. (2015). Remediation of Contaminated Areas in the Aftermath of the Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: Overview, Analysis and Lessons Learned Part 2: Recent Developments, Supporting R&D and International Discussions.

Alexander W.R., McKinley I.G., Kickmaier W., Hardie S.M.L. & Klein E. (2014). Assessment of state-of-the-art in determining bentonite porewater chemistry. AOGS 2014, IG23-A013.

McKinley I.G., Umeki H., Alexander R. & Hardie S.M.L. (2014). Multidisciplinary Geosciences Behind The Safe Disposal Of Radioactive Wastes. AOGS 2014, IG23-A005.

McKinley I.G., Kawamura H., Alexander R., Klein E. & Hardie S.M.L. (2014). Use of Analogues to Support Development of Next Generation Radionuclide Transport Models. AOGS 2014, IG23-A002.

Hardie, S.M.L., Klein, E., McKinley, I.G. & Kickmaier, W. (2013). Developing a holistic strategy for managing large volume wastes and identification of required policy infrastructure. IAEA Training Meeting on International Low Level Waste Disposal Network (DISPONET) – Workshop on Disposal of Large Volume of Radioactive Waste, IAEA, November 2013, Vienna, Austria.

Klein E., Beattie T., Hardie S.M.L., Scourse E. & McKinley I.G. (2013). Developing quality assured sorption databases for performance assessment. Migration Conference Abstracts, Session C3-3, 8-13 September 2013, Brighton, UK.

Alexander W.R., McKinley I.G., Scourse E.M., Hardie S.M.L. & Klein E. (2013). Radium natural analogue requirements for robust safety case development. Migration Conference Abstracts, Session PB6-1, 8-13 September 2013, Brighton, UK.

Hardie S.M.L., McKinley I.G., Beattie T., Scourse E. & Klein L. (2013). Development of a box-modelling approach to integrate contaminated site understanding in Fukushima. Migration Conference Abstracts, Session PFS-3, 8-13 September 2013, Brighton, UK.

McKinley, I.G., Hardie S.M.L., Alexander W.R., Klein E. & Scourse E.M. (2013). Fukushima in perspective. PSAM - 14-18 April 2013, Tokyo, Japan.

McKinley, I.G., Hardie S.M.L., Klein E. & Kickmaier W. (2013). Fukushima Remediation Waste Management. PSAM - 14-18 April 2013, Tokyo, Japan.

Scourse, E.M., Alexander W.R., McKinley I.G., Kawamura H. & Hardie S.M.L. (2013). Learning from Fukushima: a holistic approach to tsunami risk assessment. PSAM - 14-18 April 2013, Tokyo, Japan.

Duncan. H. & Hardie S.M.L. (2003). Literature Review on the Status of Amino Acids and Soluble Sugars on the Formation of Acrylamide in Processed Potatoes. Report for FNK Potato Processors Research Group, Holland, October 2003.


Mar 2022                  Invited presentation Vision Zero Summit Japan 2022, March 11-13 2022. Improving safety while minimising environmental impacts:                                     re-assessing radwaste disposal: 

Sep 2017                 1F and the hot particle problem, APSORC 2017, September 17th - 22nd, Jeju Island, South Korea. Oral presentation.

July 2015                 Chemical challenges for safety cases supporting geological disposal of radioactive waste1st Chemistry in Energy Conference,                                           Edinburgh, July 20th – 22nd. Oral presentation.

Aug 2014                 Invited paper at the International Union of Materials Research Societies, Fukuoka, Japan, August 24th - 30th, 2014, “Management                                      Options for Fukushima Corium”.

Jan 2014                  Invited presentation at SGK (Swiss Nuclear Society) on McKinley Consulting's work in Japan, especially that related to the accident                                    at Fukushima Dai-ichi, “Fukushima remediation – the Swiss Connection”.

Dec 2013                  Invited presentation given to the Swiss ambassador and staff at the Swiss embassy in Tokyo on McKinley Consulting's work in                                             Japan, in particular, the work carried out in support of Fukushima, “Fukushima – the Swiss Connection”.

Where to find us

Badstrasse 20b, Ennetbaden,
CH 5408, Switzerland
Phone Number
+41 56 2840 321
+41 78 8658 886 (mobile)